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After photons are absorbed by cytochrome C oxidase in the mitochondria, there is an increase in mitochondrial activity leading to proliferation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NADH) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nitric oxide (NO) (a potent vasodilator) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also released and act as transcription factors.

In a stressed cell, nitric oxide (NO) is bound to the cytochrome complex of ATP, inhibiting cellular respiration. When light penetrates the cell, photons trigger the release of trapped NO from the mitochondria. Once NO is released into the bloodstream it becomes a powerful vasodilator, allowing greater circulation and more oxygen to be released into cells. With the expulsion of NO, the mitochondria is now able to absorb more oxygen and use it to create ATP. Increased cellular energy and blood flow result in a diverse range of therapeutic effects for the whole body.

Phototherapy has systemic effects. Even tissues that have not been targeted with light can be affected indirectly via irradiated cell secretions. Activated cells in blood and lymph can travel significant distances from the treatment area and have distant (systemic) effects.

The correct dosimetry and wavelengths are important for phototherapy. Treatment results can vary significantly depending on the energy density and delivery. TGA-listed Xen LED delivers the highest intensity of clinically proven wavelengths under strict evidence-based protocols.

PBMT Pathways of Action

Stimulation of Nitric Oxide and ATP Production

The process of phototherapy (or PBMT – photobiomodulation therapy) regulates production of Nitric Oxide which is one of the most important molecules produced by the human body.

Nitric oxide provides three main benefits that are integral to optimal health:

  1. Prompts vasodilation (dilation of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels)
  2. Provides analgesia (pain relief)
  3. Causes angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels)

Research shows that nitric oxide plays an important role in helping memory and behaviour, assisting the immune system defend against infections and tumours, regulating blood pressure, lowering inflammation, improving sleep quality and increasing strength and endurance.

In 1998, a group of scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering that nitric oxide is the body’s most powerful endogenous (within the body) vasodilator (improves blood circulation) and that it is vital for human health and aging.

The absorption of photons also stimulates the production of molecules in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

ATP is the universal fuel inside all living cells that helps drive all biological processes.

Increased ATP supply boosts cellular metabolism, helping keep cells healthy and vital while offsetting the aging process.

Light-Tissue Interactions: Vasodilation

Improved Circulation and Oxygenation

Proper blood flow is key for maintaining optimal health and allowing organs to function properly. It promotes wound healing, keeps the heart healthy, brain sharp, decreases pain, swelling and edema, and it even promotes good complexion.

When proper blood flow is restored, nutritional flow is increased so that more nutrients (like oxygen) are delivered to cells that need them, enabling them to work better.

Common effects of poor circulation include:

  • Memory loss
  • Headache
  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Kidney damage
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Thinning hair or hair loss
  • Delayed healing due to weakened immune system
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon

PBMT stimulates cells to naturally heal and relieve pain

Light-Tissue Interactions: Analgesia

Body’s Natural Pain Relieving Relaxant

Phototherapy reduces pain perception and influences healthier nerve function by:

  • acting as a nerve block, inhibiting action potentials and the transmission of pain;
  • disrupting and affecting neural circuits and how they work;
  • suppressing synaptic activity so that the pain matrix is not activated;
  • increasing neuronal response latency (the delay in the onset of stimulus-provoked response/activity);
  • toning down the parts of a nerve fibre responsible for the quickest transmission of acute pain signals

Physiological Effects of PBMT

Light-Tissue Interactions: Angiogenesis

Enhanced Cell Regeneration Processes

Angiogenesis (the process by which new blood vessels form) is a vital function that allows delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues. It is essential for cell growth, development and tissue repair.

Clinical studies demonstrate that phototherapy promotes angiogenesis, tissue regeneration, blood perfusion, anti-inflammatory properties, as well as pain therapy. Angiogenesis is important for wound healing because new skin tissue requires its own blood supply.

Abnormal angiogenesis is recognised as a common denominator in many debilitating conditions, including skin diseases, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and many others.

Just as solar panels convert sunlight into electrical energy, and plants transform sunlight into energy by the process of photosynthesis, human cells absorb light energy in the mitochondria to produce more ATP which is our usable form of energy.

Light-Tissue Interactions: Stimulation of ATP Production

Enhanced Metabolic Activity, Energy Production and Oxygen Uptake

Improving mitochondrial health and boosting ATP (cellular energy) production in cells can help boost physical health and immunity.

Elite athletes have a much higher density of efficient mitochondria in the muscle tissues than the average person. This adaptation, which takes place over long periods of training and conditioning regimens, occurs because of the energy demands placed on the athlete’s bodies. It is one of the major metabolic benefits of exercise.

Phototherapy is a way of unlocking these cellular components that help make the body more efficient at delivering oxygen and fuel to where it’s needed.

The process improves blood flow and oxygenation while optimising how our cells use oxygen to create energy.

Without oxygen, our cells make 2 ATP molecules.

With oxygen, our cells make 38 ATP molecules.

Researchers are increasingly recognising the implication of faulty mitochondria in diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

Machrophages Engulfing Bad Cells

Light-Tissue Interactions: Improved Cell Communication

Cellular Clean-Up and Repair

ATP also serves as a signaling molecule to help communicate with macrophages to clean up damaged, defective and infected cells.

If new cells need to be made, ATP communicates with fibroblasts to initiate the bone remodeling process.

Better cell signaling also helps to regulate our immune systems by communicating to cells to induce anti-inflammatory and adaptive responses.

In addition, it sends signals to the brain so the brain releases endorphins, anti-inflammatories, serotonin, and more.

Light delivered to the body can positively benefit peripheral tissues and organs thanks to circulation of activated cells

Light-Tissue Interactions: Systemic Effects of PBMT

Whole Body Systemic Benefits

Studies prove that phototherapy has systemic effects.

Tissues and organs that have not been targeted with light can still indirectly benefit through cell secretions from other irradiated parts of the body.

In one study, researchers shone red light on one side of the face to treat hyperpigmentation. By the end of the study, massive improvements to the skin’s complexion were shown on the treatment side, but the control side also showed improvement.

The study concluded that activated cells in blood and lymph can travel significant distances from the treatment area and have distant (systemic) effects.

Total Xen LED is calibrated to optimise the energy dose of photons absorbed by cells. It is TGA-listed and engineered to ensure accuracy and precision control of clinically proven wavelength energy doses.

Light-Tissue Interactions: Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Reverse ‘Inflammaging’

Chronic, low-grade inflammation is one of the hallmarks of human aging.

Most, if not all age-related diseases share inflammation as a common contributing factor.

PBMT modulates nitric oxide production, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammation.

Nitric oxide regulates cell communication and controls delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the cells.

While impaired nitric oxide production leaves undesired effects (vasoconstriction, inflammation and tissue damage), regulated levels of nitric oxide have an anti-inflammatory effect and play a key role in a variety of inflammatory conditions.

NIR light is commonly used in conjunction with blue light to address acne breakouts. While blue light kills p.acnes bacteria, red light helps to reduce inflammation and promotes healing.
Red and NIR light actively encourage collagen production while slowing down collagen degradation. Regular treatments help improve the structure and strength of the skin, reducing fine lines and wrinkles, and the appearance of bags under the eyes.
Red and NIR light are helpful in treating redness, burning, itching and papules related to chronic rosacea through its inflammation reducing properties.
Clinical results show that red and NIR light can have a therapeutic effect on eczema and psoriasis due to their anti-inflammatory properties.
Using phototherapy as a part of your treatments for cuts, abrasions or even slight skin burns will help reduce the pain felt and helps make sure that they recover as rapidly as possible. This may also help reduce the risk of infections as damage heals quicker and reduces the chance of permanent scarring.
Scars from acne, injuries, surgery, and birth are both faded and reduced through routine red light exposure because of the boost it can supply to the body’s ability to increase blood circulation.
Light-Tissue Interactions: Collagen And Elastin Synthesis

Anti-Aging Skin Treatment

Production of nitric oxide, which diminishes by as much as 50% by age 40, can accelerate the aging process from diminished cardiovascular function to aging of the skin.

Similarly, by the time we reach age 60, levels of ATP in our skin have declined to 50%. An energy deficiency means our cells no longer perform at their full potential, resulting in lower levels of collagen and elastin synthesis.

At the dermal level, stimulation of ATP and nitric oxide production enhances the natural restorative metabolism of cells while improving the overall condition of the skin and bones.

  • Improved collagen and fibroblasts production
  • Increased blood flow
  • Soft tissue repair
  • Improved skin tone
  • Reduced incidence of skin conditions
  • Decreased inflammation
  • Reduced oxidative stress
  • New capillaries formation
  • Lymphatic system activation
  • Enhanced muscle recovery

Clinical Papers

Skin Health

Barbaric, Jelena et al. “Light therapies for acne.” The Cochrane database of systematic reviews vol. 9,9 CD007917. 27 Sep. 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457763

Barolet, Daniel et al. “Infrared And Skin: Friend Or Foe”. Journal Of Photochemistry And Photobiology B: Biology, vol 155, 2016, pp. 78-85. Elsevier BV, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.12.014

Jagdeo, Jared et al. “Light-emitting diodes in dermatology: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.” Lasers in surgery and medicine, vol. 50,6 613–628. 22 Jan. 2018, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099480

Pinar Avci, Michael R Hamblin. “Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) In Skin: Stimulating, Healing, Restoring”. Pubmed Central (PMC), 2021, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4126803

Wunsch, Alexander, and Karsten Matuschka. “A Controlled Trial To Determine The Efficacy Of Red And Near-Infrared Light Treatment In Patient Satisfaction, Reduction Of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, And Intradermal Collagen Density Increase”. Photomedicine And Laser Surgery, vol 32, no. 2, 2014, pp. 93-100. Mary Ann Liebert Inc, https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2013.3616

Muscle Performance and Energy

Assis, L., Moretti, A.I.S., Abrahão, T.B. et al. Low-level laser therapy (808 nm) contributes to muscle regeneration and prevents fibrosis in rat tibialis anterior muscle after cryolesion. Lasers Med Sci 28, 947–955 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-012-1183-3

Baroni, B.M., Rodrigues, R., Freire, B.B. et al. Effect of low-level laser therapy on muscle adaptation to knee extensor eccentric training. Eur J Appl Physiol 115, 639–647 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-3055-y

Ferraresi, Cleber, Hamblin, Michael R. and Parizotto, Nivaldo A.. “Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) on muscle tissue: performance, fatigue and repair benefited by the power of light” Photonics & Lasers in Medicine, vol. 1, no. 4, 2012, pp. 267-286. https://doi.org/10.1515/plm-2012-0032

Leal Junior, E. C., de Godoi, V., Mancalossi, J. L., Rossi, R. P., De Marchi, T., Parente, M., Grosselli, D., Generosi, R. A., Basso, M., Frigo, L., Tomazoni, S. S., Bjordal, J. M., & Lopes-Martins, R. A. (2011). Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes–preliminary results. Lasers in medical science26(4), 493–501. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-010-0866-x

Nampo, F.K., Cavalheri, V., dos Santos Soares, F. et al. Low-level phototherapy to improve exercise capacity and muscle performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lasers Med Sci 31, 1957–1970 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-1977-9

Paul A. Borsa, Kelly A. Larkin, Jerry M. True; Does Phototherapy Enhance Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function and Postexercise Recovery? A Systematic Review. J Athl Train 1 January 2013; 48 (1): 57–67. doi: https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-48.1.12

Tafur, Joseph, and Paul J. Mills. “Low-Intensity Light Therapy: Exploring The Role Of Redox Mechanisms”. Photomedicine And Laser Surgery, vol 26, no. 4, 2008, pp. 323-328. Mary Ann Liebert Inc, https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/pho.2007.2184

Vanin, A.A., Miranda, E.F., Machado, C.S.M. et al. What is the best moment to apply phototherapy when associated to a strength training program? A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lasers Med Sci 31, 1555–1564 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-2015-7

Reduce Inflammation

Hamblin, Michael R. “Can Osteoarthritis Be Treated With Light?”. Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol 15, no. 5, 2013, p. 120. Springer Science And Business Media LLC, https://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar4354

Hamblin, Michael R. “Mechanisms And Applications Of The Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of Photobiomodulation”. AIMS Biophysics, vol 4, no. 3, 2017, pp. 337-361. American Institute Of Mathematical Sciences (AIMS), https://doi.org/10.3934/biophy.2017.3.337

Management of Arthritis

Dos Anjos, L. M. J., Salvador, P. A., de Souza, Á. C., de Souza da Fonseca, A., de Paoli, F., & Gameiro, J. (2019). Modulation of immune response to induced-arthritis by low-level laser therapy. Journal of Biophotonics12(2), e201800120. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201800120

Elnaggar, R. K., Mahmoud, W. S., Abdelbasset, W. K., Alqahtani, B. A., Alrawaili, S. M., & Elfakharany, M. S. (2021). Low-energy laser therapy application on knee joints as an auxiliary treatment in patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a dual-arm randomized clinical trial. Lasers in Medical Science37(3), 1737–1746. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03427-6

Delay Cardiovascular Aging

Syed, S. B., Ahmet, I., Chakir, K., Morrell, C. H., Arany, P. R., & Lakatta, E. G. (2023). Photobiomodulation therapy mitigates cardiovascular aging and improves survival. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 55(3), 278–293. https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.23644

Stem Cell Proliferation

Abrahamse, Heidi. “Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells, And Low-Level Laser Therapy: Future Directives”. Photomedicine And Laser Surgery, vol 30, no. 12, 2012, pp. 681-682. Mary Ann Liebert Inc, https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2012.9881

Bayat, Mohammad, and Ali Jalalifirouzkouhi. “Presenting A Method To Improve Bone Quality Through Stimulation Of Osteoporotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells By Low-Level Laser Therapy”. Photomedicine And Laser Surgery, vol 35, no. 11, 2017, pp. 622-628. Mary Ann Liebert Inc, https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2016.4245

El Gammal, Z.H., Zaher, A.M. & El-Badri, N. Effect of low-level laser-treated mesenchymal stem cells on myocardial infarction. Lasers Med Sci 32, 1637–1646 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-017-2271-1

Emelyanov, Artem Nikolaevich, and Vera Vasilievna Kiryanova. “Photomodulation Of Proliferation And Differentiation Of Stem Cells By The Visible And Infrared Light”. Photomedicine And Laser Surgery, vol 33, no. 3, 2015, pp. 164-174. Mary Ann Liebert Inc, https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2014.3830

Ginani, F., Soares, D.M., Barreto, M.P.V. et al. Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review. Lasers Med Sci 30, 2189–2194 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-015-1730-9

Reverse Hair Loss

Avci, Pinar et al. “Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) For Treatment Of Hair Loss”. Lasers In Surgery And Medicine, vol 46, no. 2, 2013, pp. 144-151. Wiley, https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.22170

Weight Loss

Möckel, Frank et al. “Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise.” German medical science : GMS e-journal vol. 4 Doc05. 11 Jul. 2006. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2703221

Reid, Kathryn J. et al. “Timing And Intensity Of Light Correlate With Body Weight In Adults”. Plos ONE, vol 9, no. 4, 2014, p. e92251. Public Library Of Science (Plos), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092251

Sene-Fiorese, Marcela et al. “The Potential Of Phototherapy To Reduce Body Fat, Insulin Resistance And “Metabolic Inflexibility” Related To Obesity In Women Undergoing Weight Loss Treatment”. Lasers In Surgery And Medicine, vol 47, no. 8, 2015, pp. 634-642. Wiley, https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.22395

Improve Brain Health

Barrett, D.W., and F. Gonzalez-Lima. “Transcranial Infrared Laser Stimulation Produces Beneficial Cognitive And Emotional Effects In Humans”. Neuroscience, vol 230, 2013, pp. 13-23. Elsevier BV, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.11.016

Gonzalez-Lima, F., and Douglas W. Barrett. “Augmentation Of Cognitive Brain Functions With Transcranial Lasers”. Frontiers In Systems Neuroscience, vol 8, 2014. Frontiers Media SA, https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00036

Saltmarche, Anita E. et al. “Significant Improvement In Cognition In Mild To Moderately Severe Dementia Cases Treated With Transcranial Plus Intranasal Photobiomodulation: Case Series Report”. Photomedicine And Laser Surgery, vol 35, no. 8, 2017, pp. 432-441. Mary Ann Liebert Inc, https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2016.4227

Weijun Xuan, Fatma Vatansever, Liyi Huang, Michael R. Hamblin, “Transcranial low-level laser therapy enhances learning, memory, and neuroprogenitor cells after traumatic brain injury in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(10) 108003 (7 October 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.19.10.108003

Boost Immune System

Bayat, Mohammad et al. “Effects of low-level laser therapy on mast cell number and degranulation in third-degree burns of rats.” Journal of rehabilitation research and development 45 6 (2008): 931-8 . https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:18640419

Pereira, Manoela Carrera M.C. et al. “Influence Of 670Nm Low-Level Laser Therapy On Mast Cells And Vascular Response Of Cutaneous Injuries”. Journal Of Photochemistry And Photobiology B: Biology, vol 98, no. 3, 2010, pp. 188-192. Elsevier BV, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2009.12.005

Tadakuma, Takushi. “Possible Application Of The Laser In Immunobiology.”. The Keio Journal Of Medicine, vol 42, no. 4, 1993, pp. 180-182. Keio Journal Of Medicine, https://doi.org/10.2302/kjm.42.180

Cold Sore Treatment

Ellis Neiburger, The Effect of Low-Level Red Laser Light on the Healing of Oral Ulcers, Glidewell, Chairside Magazine, August, 2009, https://glidewelldental.com/education/chairside-dental-magazine/volume-4-issue-3/the-effect-of-low-level-red-laser-light-on-the-healing-of-oral-ulcers/

Ferreira, Dennis Carvalho et al. Recurrent herpes simplex infections: laser therapy as a potential tool for long-term successful treatment. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical [online]. 2011, v. 44, n. 3 [Accessed 27 June 2022] , pp. 397-399. Available from: <https://doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822011000300029>. Epub 11 July 2011. ISSN 1678-9849. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822011000300029.

Park, K. Y., Han, T. Y., Kim, I. S., Yeo, I. K., Kim, B. J., & Kim, M. N. (2013). The Effects of 830 nm Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Acute Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: A Pilot Study. Annals of dermatology25(2), 163–167. https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2013.25.2.163

Sanchez, Pedro & Femenías, José & Tejeda, Alejandro & Tunér, Jan. (2011). The Effect of 670-nm Low Laser Therapy on Herpes Simplex Type 1. Photomedicine and laser surgery. 30. 37-40. http://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2011.3076

Testosterone Levels

Alves, M.B.R., de Arruda, R.P., Batissaco, L. et al. Low-level laser therapy to recovery testicular degeneration in rams: effects on seminal characteristics, scrotal temperature, plasma testosterone concentration, and testes histopathology. Lasers Med Sci 31, 695–704 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-1911-1

Biswas, N M et al. “Effect of continuous light on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in rats: possible involvement of alpha 2u-globulin.” Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ vol. 15,1 (2013): 62-4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24592797

Bone Density, Growth and Strengthening

Ebrahimi, T., Moslemi, N., Rokn, A., Heidari, M., Nokhbatolfoghahaie, H., & Fekrazad, R. (2012). The influence of low-intensity laser therapy on bone healing. Journal of dentistry (Tehran, Iran)9(4), 238–248. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3536459/

Hosseinpour, S., Fekrazad, R., Arany, P. R., & Ye, Q. (2019). Molecular impacts of photobiomodulation on bone regeneration: A systematic review. Progress in biophysics and molecular biology149, 147–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2019.04.005

Pinheiro, A. L., & Gerbi, M. E. (2006). Photoengineering of bone repair processes. Photomedicine and laser surgery24(2), 169–178. https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2006.24.169

Yunqi Li, Haixia Qiu, Biao Chang, Tengda Ji, Yidi Liu, Ying Gu, “Application and development of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for osteoporosis,” Proc. SPIE 10820, Optics in Health Care and Biomedical Optics VIII, 1082031 (29 October 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2501750

Zein, R., Selting, W., & Benedicenti, S. (2017). Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Regeneration During Osseointegration and Bone Graft. Photomedicine and laser surgery35(12), 649–658. https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2017.4275

Sexual and Reproductive Health

El Faham, D. A., Elnoury, M. A. H., Morsy, M. I., El Shaer, M. A., Nour Eldin, G. M., & Azmy, O. M. (2018). Has the time come to include low-level laser photobiomodulation as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of impaired endometrial receptivity? Lasers in Medical Science, 33(5), 1105–1114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-018-2476-y

Karu, Tiina I. “Lasers In Infertility Treatment: Irradiation Of Oocytes And Spermatozoa”. Photomedicine And Laser Surgery, vol 30, no. 5, 2012, pp. 239-241. Mary Ann Liebert Inc, https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2012.9888

Moskvin, Sergey Vladimirovich, and Oleg Ivanovich Apolikhin. “Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility.” BioMedicine vol. 8,2 (2018): 7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992952

Ohshiro, T. (2012). Personal Overview of the Application of LLLT in Severely Infertile Japanese Females. Laser Therapy, 21(2), 97–103. https://doi.org/10.5978/islsm.12-or-05

Preece, D., Chow, K. W., Gomez-Godinez, V., Gustafson, K., Esener, S., Ravida, N., Durrant, B., & Berns, M. W. (2017). Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage. Scientific Reports, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep46480

Vladimirovich Moskvin, S., & Ivanovich Apolikhin, O. (2018). Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility. BioMedicine, 8(2), 7. https://doi.org/10.1051/bmdcn/2018080207

Increase Energy Levels

Quirk, Brendan J. et al. “Effect Of Near-Infrared Light On In Vitro Cellular ATP Production Of Osteoblasts And Fibroblasts And On Fracture Healing With Intramedullary Fixation”. Journal Of Clinical Orthopaedics And Trauma, vol 7, no. 4, 2016, pp. 234-241. Elsevier BV, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2016.02.009

Enhance Blood Circulation

Frangez, I., Cankar, K., Ban Frangez, H. et al. The effect of LED on blood microcirculation during chronic wound healing in diabetic and non-diabetic patients—a prospective, double-blind randomized study. Lasers Med Sci 32, 887–894 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-017-2189-7

Martignago, C.C.S., Oliveira, R.F., Pires-Oliveira, D.A.A. et al. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the gene expression of collagen and vascular endothelial growth factor in a culture of fibroblast cells in mice. Lasers Med Sci 30, 203–208 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-014-1644-y

Shorten Training and Injury Recovery Times

Ferraresi, Cleber, Hamblin, Michael R. and Parizotto, Nivaldo A.. “Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) on muscle tissue: performance, fatigue and repair benefited by the power of light: Photonics & Lasers in Medicine, vol. 1, no. 4, 2012, pp. 267-286. https://doi.org/10.1515/plm-2012-0032

Improve Lymphatic Drainage

Carati, C. J., Anderson, S. N., Gannon, B. J., & Piller, N. B. (2003). Treatment of postmastectomy lymphedema with low-level laser therapy. Cancer, 98(6), 1114–1122. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.11641

Lee, N., Wigg, J., & Carroll, J. (2013). The use of low level light therapy in the treatment of head and neck oedema. Journal of Lymphoedema, 8(1). https://hadhealth.com/assets/articles/JOL_8-1LED%20LEEWgCarroll.pdf

Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O., Abdurashitov, A., Dubrovsky, A., Klimova, M., Agranovich, I., Terskov, A., Shirokov, A., Vinnik, V., Kuzmina, A., Lezhnev, N., Blokhina, I., Shnitenkova, A., Tuchin, V., Rafailov, E., & Kurths, J. (2020). Photobiomodulation of lymphatic drainage and clearance: perspective strategy for augmentation of meningeal lymphatic functions. Biomedical Optics Express, 11(2), 725. https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.383390

Pain Relief

Chow, Roberta T., and Patricia J. Armati. “Photobiomodulation: Implications For Anesthesia And Pain Relief”. Photomedicine And Laser Surgery, vol 34, no. 12, 2016, pp. 599-609. Mary Ann Liebert Inc, https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2015.4048

Dima, Robert et al. “Review of Literature on Low-level Laser Therapy Benefits for Nonpharmacological Pain Control in Chronic Pain and Osteoarthritis.” Alternative therapies in health and medicine vol. 24,5 (2018): 8-10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28987080

Fulop, Andras M et al. “A meta-analysis of the efficacy of laser phototherapy on pain relief.” The Clinical journal of pain vol. 26,8 (2010): 729-36. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20842007

Westerblad, Håkan et al. “Skeletal Muscle: Energy Metabolism, Fiber Types, Fatigue And Adaptability”. Experimental Cell Research, vol 316, no. 18, 2010, pp. 3093-3099. Elsevier BV, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.05.019

Wound Healing

De Castro, I.C.V., Rocha, C.A.G., Gomes Henriques, Á.C. et al. Do laser and led phototherapies influence mast cells and myofibroblasts to produce collagen?. Lasers Med Sci 29, 1405–1410 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-014-1537-0

Gupta, Asheesh et al. “Effect of red and near-infrared wavelengths on low-level laser (light) therapy-induced healing of partial-thickness dermal abrasion in mice.” Lasers in medical science vol. 29,1 (2014): 257-65. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23619627

Cellular Mechanisms

Chung, Hoon et al. “The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy.” Annals of biomedical engineering vol. 40,2 (2012): 516-33. doi:10.1007/s10439-011-0454-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288797

Hamblin, Michael R, and Demidova, Tatiana N. “Mechanisms of low level light therapy”, Proc. SPIE 6140, Mechanisms for Low-Light Therapy, 614001 (10 February 2006); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.646294

Huang, Ying-Ying et al. “Basic Photomedicine”. Photobiology.Info, 2021, http://photobiology.info/Photomed.html

Poyton, Robert O, and Kerri A Ball. “Therapeutic photobiomodulation: nitric oxide and a novel function of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase.” Discovery medicine vol. 11,57 (2011): 154-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21356170

Tsai, Shang-Ru, and Michael R Hamblin. “Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.” Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology vol. 170 (2017): 197-207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505738

Evidence of Efficacy

Kim, Won-Serk, and R Glen Calderhead. “Is light-emitting diode phototherapy (LED-LLLT) really effective?.” Laser therapy vol. 20,3 (2011): 205-15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3799034/